In conclusion, the crude oil from C. articulatus exhibited the best results of antimicrobial activity e ability to control biofilm formation. The chemical analysis showed the presence of terpenes and monoterpenes such as a-pinene, a-bulnesene and copaene. The reduction of biofilms formation was confirmed from SEM images. The results of this research shows a great potential from the plants studied as new antimicrobial sources.
According to the criteria previously mentioned, the oils from A. gratissima (AG), C. articulatus (CA), C. sativum (CS), L. sidoides (LS) and M. glomerata (MG) were fractionated and the fractions were submitted to antimicrobial assays. The MIC/MBC/MFC results from crude oils (EO) and fractions are shown in Table 3. The highest inhibitory and bactericidal effects presented by the fractions were observed for F2LS (Fraction 2 from L. sidoides) against F. nucleatum and S. mitis and for F1CA (fraction 1 from C. articulatus) and F4AG (fraction 4 from A. gratissima) against P. gingivalis and S. sanguis, respectively. However, all the fractions presented similar or lower activity than the crude oil against the microorganisms suggesting a synergistic action from the compounds present in crude oil.

Research has shown that essential oils have potential as a natural pesticide. In case studies, certain oils have been shown to have a variety of deterring effects on pests, specifically insects and select arthropods.[27] These effects may include repelling, inhibiting digestion, stunting growth,[28] decreasing rate of reproduction, or death of pests that consume the oil. However, the molecules within the oils that cause these effects are normally non-toxic for mammals. These specific actions of the molecules allow for widespread use of these green pesticides without harmful effects to anything other than pests.[29] Essential oils that have been investigated include rose, lemon grass, lavender, thyme, peppermint, and eucalyptus.[30]
While wholesale companies will often claim they sell pure oils, most don't. Genuine essential oils are very costly to produce, and many companies in the industry cut corners to reduce their expenses. At Choice Essential Oils, we offer 100% pure, Non-GMO essential oils at unbeatable prices. Other companies may dilute their essential oils with cheap carrier oils in order to boost their profit margins.  However, for one to attain the true benefits that essential oils have to offer, it is important to buy only the highest premium quality.
~ I still worry a little about the internal and undiluted use of the oils but due to their purity I am less worried and have not seen or heard about any adverse events associated with these uses. doTERRA does encourage dilution for specific oils such as Wintergreen and Oregano and using the oils on the bottom of the feet, especially for children and the elderly or frail, since the skin is tougher there. Also, many of the people with doTERRA are very experienced using essential oils and because of this experience can say with a good deal of confidence that the oils are not dangerous to any particular group of people, including pregnant women and their babies. They also support valid scientific research on essential oils. I have checked their information with my professional aromatherapy texts and they are accurate.
I agree partially with this post. But as far as there are only a few choice oils that can be used undiluted…I disagree. I use a number of essential oils on my skin daily undiluted. I’m a distributor with young living and I had used another brand before that was purchased on Amazon. Cheap oils can be very harmful. It made me extremely sick. Thankfully I had a friend introduce me to young living. I do NOT know about every eo company on the market. That would be impossible to know everything. I do however trust young living and their seed to seal promise. They harvest their own plants that are not treated with pesticides or other nasty chemicals. They distill all of their plants themselves. They test inside the company for purity and have a third party test them as well. They package and seal their products. They know exactly what is in their bottles and more importantly what’s NOT in their bottles of essential oils. Cheap oils are just that…cheap, adulterated bottles of eos that I would not put on my body or want diffused in my home. I take yl essential oils internally and they have never harmed me. Yes there are two oils that young living has that can’t be taken internally because of the way they were extracted and YL lets you know this. And as far as using orange or lemon for the face…you need to also warn, citrus oils (along with a few others) will make your skin sensitive to the sun. That is very important.
Dermal sensitization is a type of allergic reaction. It occurs on first exposure to a substance, but on this occasion, the noticeable effect on the skin will be slight or absent. However, subsequent exposure to the same material, or to a similar one with which there is cross-sensitization, produces a severe inflammatory reaction brought about by cells of the immune system (T-lymphocytes).7 The reaction will be represented on the skin as blotchy or redness, which may be painful to some individuals.
I have had a beginer/intermediate training in aromatherapy and my teacher then and a current certified teaching aromatherapist I know now, do not reccomend ‘neat’ or undiluted applications unless the oil is high in linalol (a chemical you should be familar with if you’re versed enough to be giving classes) and only on small scrapes, occasionally. NEVER neat applications on a baby, many are not reccomened for babies or young kids at all. The only way it wouldn’t have given them a reaction is if they were diluted and or inferiorly distilled. If you had training in aromatherapy (an actual class w/ anatomy/physiology, chemistry, etc.) you would know that, as well as how dangerous ingestion of EO’s can be to the mucous membranes and not telling the uneducated to just ‘go ahead and drink it’ nor would the company you get them from if they were ethical. Honestly I know you’re not trying to harm anyone, but please get more education under your belt first (a certification would be best) before you do harm someone. This goes for anyone anywhere, remember we live in a sue happy culture!

This is something that should be readily available. For example, the company Aromatics International lists their oil data right on the respective product pages. Most often, you won't often find this posted on websites, but upon request, you should be able to receive it. According to Aromatics, "Gas Chromatography (GC) is a method of separating the volatile compounds in essential oils into individual components and produces a linear graph that charts these components. Mass Spectrometry (MS) identifies each of these components and their percentages. This process is used to identify any adulteration of the essential oil tested. The precise breakdown of the chemical components in individual oils given to us by GC/MS reports are important as the therapeutic benefits and safety issues of essential oils are, in large part, determined by their chemical makeup." (Source)
Speaking of “pure” essential oils, what exactly does that mean? Unfortunately, since there is no official or standardized definition of purity, it means very little with regards to the therapeutic value of any essential oil. Even an oil that is 100% pure may not have been processed correctly and may not provide more than a mild, pleasant fragrance.  Perfumery oils, fragrance oils, and flavorings often provide a stronger pleasant fragrance, but do not offer the therapeutic benefit of true essential oils. The amount of therapeutically effective chemical constituents in essential oils can vary from season to season, from year to year, or vary based on where the plant is grown. The essential oil extraction process also affects how this chemical balance is maintained from the time of plant harvesting to having the essential oil arrive in your home.
My 15 yo daughter has suffered severely from eczema. She’s been on steroid pills, creams and every prescribed topical ointment on the market. I am desperate to approach this skin issue with a more natural/healthy method. The steroid pills she takes are not at all healthy on her system but I dont know what else to do. I would love your recipe for the psoriasis mixture as this may help with my daughter. Thanks so much!!
So when the "Tastefully Simple" rep meets the "Young Living" rep, they assume their training is much the same. They both have a product they are pumped up to believe in, are trained by their supervisors in marketing and sales methods, and are sent out to sell. But while the sales representatives of some MLM companies are just trying to find sales, what the Young Living rep is doing is two-fold both dangerous and manipulative to the customer. Here's why:
All of the reputable essential oil companies in this comparison are ones that have made a name for themselves in at least half of the States. I didn’t chart brands that are only known vaguely in a few States. All of the essential oil brands on this map are popular, well-established, and trustworthy. Now the question only is: will they work for you?

For aromatherapy reasons I've always been satisfied with Mountain Rose Herbs's organic essential oils for quality, selection, ethics, and price (mountainroseherbs.com). Others speak highly of Nature's Gift Aromatherapy for the same reasons (www.naturesgift.com). Both have awesome information listed for their oils for traditional and safe uses. Maybe checking out these two could help get you back on track? Good luck!
When I had my second baby, my hair thinned out so much. I used essential oils for regrowth. It’s been 8 months and my hair has fully grown back. In an 8oz glass amber bottle, I put 15 drops Cedarwood (Atlas), 15 drops Rosemary (Spanish) and 10 drops Lavender and filled the rest of the bottle with Witch Hazel. I would spray my hair after a shower every day. It worked for me! I use Edens Garden Essential Oils….those are the only oils I use for my family. Also, we’ve been medicine free for about 3 years. I love them. Hope this helps.
Words like “eco-friendly,” “pure,” “therapeutic grade,” and “certified,” are just some of the many words that you may find on a bottle of essential oil. “These phrases are devoid of scientific foundations or official regulations, yet they are frequently used to market products that cannot fulfill the producer’s promises,” says Nadine Artemis, botanical formulator and aromacologist and co-creator of Living Libations. “No organization, association, or commission monitors the purity or quality of essentials oils, and there is no universal essential oil grading systems in place. If you see these terms, beware.” Even reputable companies with quality essential oils create their own set of “standards” and “seals.” While that is not necessarily a red flag, the “seal” or “standard” stamp isn’t an industry-wide seal of approval from any governing commission.
The truth is that there are MANY therapeutic grade standards. The problem is, which one do you trust? It’s important for people to realize that all of these standards are INTERNAL standards developed by companies selling oils and may or may not include quality control by a third party lab. Furthermore, if a third party lab is used, does this lab really know what they are doing? It’s also important to know what the company defines as being “therapeutic grade” does it simply mean that the oil is pure or does it mean something beyond purity and carry with it a quality standard as well? Let’s face it, an oil can be pure as the driven snow but still be low quality, I see this on a daily basis in the samples I analyze for my clients in order for them to make good buying decisions. Judgments about essential oil quality take more than just good chemists and good equipment, they require many years of experience in odor evaluation and knowing what specific minor components are desirable in an oil and not just focusing on the major components.
Meanwhile, ill-informed at-home users may misuse them. One group of concerned aromatherapists, at the Atlantic Institute for Aromatherapy, began collecting injury reports online. Since the fall of 2013, it has found more than 268, ranging from mild rashes and anaphylactic shock to internal chemical burns from using oils to treat vaginal yeast infections. In 2017 alone, 55 people, including five children and two pregnant women, reported serious reactions. (The organization estimates that fewer than 5 to 10% of adverse reactions are reported.)

EXCELLENT BUY!! As a herbalist and soap maker, I use a variety of oils from various companies all over the world. The price for these was SO low that I thought, at the very least, I could use them for aroma therapy. They arrived in a beautifully designed box - professionally labeled and WOW was I STUNNED - the fragrance of each one showed very little difference from my finest oils that I have paid MUCH more for! As I am not a chemist - I cannot vouch for the percentages of each constituent, but I can tell you that the oils from the set that I have used thus far - have shown themselves to be just as effective as the high dollar bottle I have bought elsewhere! EXCELLENT Job - I sure hope they restock soon - I am buying MORE!
doTerra is not an ethical company, if it was, they wouldn’t propogate lies for profit… The “CTPG” that you refer to is NOT a “certification” for EO’s, as they would have you believe. It is a “Registered Trademark”, signified by the little circled R behind the “CTPG”… There are many other things of which I could address, but that is for another day.
The concern with oils not being pure is a valid one. For many reasons, often related to a distiller or supplier wanting to make more money, adulteration of essential oils is a serious problem.  Oils are adulterated at various stages of their production, and in many different ways. Finding an honest retailer who specializes in essential oils will minimize or remove your risk of purchasing an adulterated essential oil. Retailers who specialize in selling essential oils will be more likely to provide pure essential oils, as they will be more involved in the essential oil trade, and more likely to be concerned that their product be valid, since it is their primary source of business and reputation.
The ISO/AFNOR standard for lavender essential oil recommends two cultivars used to meet the specific needs of perfume manufacturers. Their recommended composition of lavender oil favors the low camphor Reya and Munstead types for fine fragrance use precisely because these do not have the depth, nor complexity of constituents, that other legitimate lavender oils commonly used in aromatherapy have. That standard notably does not allow the use of all four of the major cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia (formerly known as Lavandula officinalis) used by aromatherapists: the Vera, Munstead, Silver and Raya cultivars. It also excludes many minor subspecies of L. angustifolia.
I looked into the proprietary claim a little further and there really isn't much to it. Pure oil is pure oil. You would see the compounds of plant matter and maybe the location of origin. That's pretty much it. The best oils on the planet, each specific one, typically comes from only a few locations, with each region having distillers that work with a specific plant. I sent the following email last year in response to their request for the non-disclosure in exchange for lab results, and their request to know how they were going to be used.
Couldn't of arrived at a better time. I fell ill with the flu the day after I received them, researched appropriate oils that help with boosting immune system an help sickness etc. Used certain ones in the diffuser and my bath and even with a carrier oil (coconut oil) on my skin and my symptoms lessened. I noticed this because the one day I didn't use the oils or diffuser my symptoms became horrendous as the day went on and I was bedridden. Again the following day I went back to using oils and the flu symptoms eased and cleared within two days. Absolute god send. Love them especially frankincense that's my fave. Thank you.
“Aromatherapy grade” and “fragrance grade” means it not 100 percent pure essential oil, but has had other oils added, such as carrier oils and/or synthetic components of the natural oil. “To be considered a therapeutic oil, it must be completely free of any and all chemicals as well as slowly and carefully extracted via methods that keep the original compounds in its natural state,” says Dr. Axe. These healing scents will help you feel better.
THE NEW AGE OF ESSENTIAL OILS. Feel the transformation with our standardized, 100% ISO certified, and Medicinal Oil Association approved essential oils. Essential oils are the power of mother nature in the palm of your hand. Only the purest of sources can give you an abundance of natural healing phytochemicals. Only ZEVA brings you the pure medicinal power of Mother Nature, giving you a truly unique experience that you won’t find from any other source. You’ll feel the difference with true medicinal grade essential oils from ZEVA- the new age of essential oils.
Thank you for this article. I have been reading up on the ingestion of essential oils for a few months. I had a friend that ingested too much and was ill for a while due to it. Now I find myself nervous as there are folks I work with that are drinking essential oils in their water on a daily basis, have their children drink it and now have passed out flyers about essential oil shots. Very concerned and don't know how to tell them I'm worried.
You’ll find essential oils offered everywhere from gifts shops to large retailers, and, of course, online. You may want to start your search for essential oils with reputable companies such as DoTERRA, Young Living Essential Oils, Ancient Apothecary, Living Libations and Edens Garden. Keep in mind, essential oils break down over time, so check your expiration dates; you’ll want one that’s two to three years out from the time of purchase. Make sure you avoid these essential oil safety mistakes.
Essential oils will last for at least 5 years (if not 10), so one bottle could literally last you a decade. Hopefully that thought will help mitigate the cost involved in purchasing some essential oils. Because they are SO concentrated and only a tiny amount is needed in anything you do, they’ll last you a very, very long time. The only exception to this rule is citrus oils, which will see a reduction in potency after a year or two.

Frankincense calms the digestive and nervous systems, and relieves anxiety and emotional upsets, just rub a few drops behind your ears and on wrists to ease stress. Use a diffuser in your room to uplift your mood. Frankincense is a great essential oil to help heal burns, scrapes, cuts, and oozing sores. Just add a few drops to a base such as coconut oil and rub into the broken skin. Add a few drops to a handkerchief and inhale to relieve nasal congestion.

An essential oil does not have to be adulterated to be inferior. Plant quality, climate, location, growing conditions, harvest, and production technique have a lot to do with quality. Of course, environmental conditions directly affect the percentages of each component of the essential oil. Botanical variety and Chemotype identification also play a part in quality determination. Like organic, ‘wild crafted’ is another overused term. Many imported essential oils come from non-plantation sources.
However, a small variation in price differences on the higher end will NOT mean a better essential oil. It will just mean a higher price. (A little birdie also told me that there are also only a handful of essential oil distilleries in the world, which means that most essential oils come from the exact same places – thus there is little difference in quality between the more “typically priced” EOs.) What I’m saying here is: Understand that you DO have to pay for quality, but that if you’re just using essential oils in non-therapeutic fashions, it’s okay to use less expensive oils (like the Beeyoutiful ones pictured at the top of this post, or NOW brand essential oils). But if you want high quality, I suggest using an ethical supplier that offers organic essential oils (grown without pesticides or toxic fertilizers).

I have to say thank you for this wonderful and informative article. I am new to the world of essential oils. I am now obsessed with the learning process. I just spent $200 on the books you suggested!!I have several friends that do the YL oils and I recommended them to check out the oils I found. The first thing they said to me is they don't say you can't ingest them so they are no good. I contacted the company right away and they got back within the hour telling me in no way do they recommend that without the supervision of a Aroma therapist or doctor. They do have recipes for teas and cooking with the oils but nothing on ingesting them straight. They said no way. I also like them because they get back to me with answerers to every question no matter how small. That is a good company.


Nature's medicinals hold the potential to treat and relieve ailments that is easily accessible and affordable to all of us. Let's not cast a devastating shadow of dis-credibility on the benefits of herbal medicine that are being newly being brought to light on the public platform by recommending we use them unsafely. Could it be that careless and dangerous practices like these are in fact a pharmaceutical plant (pun intended) meant to completely discredit an otherwise effective, useful, and invaluable field of knowledge for the well-being of all? Afterall, a house divided against itself cannot stand.
Frankincense can be used for depression, inflammation, immunity, and to increase spiritual awareness.Today, scientists, physicians and researchers are beginning to return to the use of essential oils as a way to naturally and holistically heal our bodies. Frankincense actually has a history of medicinal use and could be quite helpful in your medicine cabinet.
DoTerra and Young Living are both Multi Level Marketing companies, making the oils more expensive. All pure essential oils are therapeutic. Young Living tried to copyright the term to set them apart. DoTerra is run by people who left Young Living. These two companies, as well as many others, get their oils from the same suppliers. They make their own blends, but there are some standard blends that are very similar from company to company. Ingesting oils is not necessary because they are so easily absorbed through the skin. I get my oils from a smaller company who uses the same suppliers and I get a lot more for my money!
GuruNanda sources 100% Pure & Natural Essential Oils From Farm to You® Nothing added, nothing removed. If you purchase an oil from our website and don't love it, we'll happily refund you for the cost of the product and state tax. If you purchase a Gurunanda essential oil from a retail store, we can replace it with a different essential oil for you! - No Questions Asked!
GuruNanda sources 100% Pure & Natural Essential Oils From Farm to You® Nothing added, nothing removed. If you purchase an oil from our website and don't love it, we'll happily refund you for the cost of the product and state tax. If you purchase a Gurunanda essential oil from a retail store, we can replace it with a different essential oil for you! - No Questions Asked!
It’s been a few months since you posted, and I hope you are feeling better! My youngest is now 10 and I am JUST now, as I am learning about my peri-menopausal experience, getting an understanding on my postpartum experience. I struggled for months with each kid and now I am pretty sure the base-line physical issue was hormonal imbalance. I have been taking a product from Young Living called Progessence Plus, and it has been a life-saver– I wish I had it when I was postpartum. Look it up, theres a PDF by Dr. Dan Purser talking about the product that answers a lot of questions and helped me a lot when I was researching. There are other oils from YL that help a lot with hormonal issues, Dragon Time, Schlaressence, Lady Schlerol. (Use my distributer #1112524 🙂 if you want to buy from YL)
To give you an example the perfume industry requires a standardised scent profile for most of the oils that it uses so that the perfume that they manufacture has a reliable scent.  So  the oils supplied to the perfume industry are usually standardised accordingly. Lavender 40/42 is  where two of the main constituents in lavender oil, linalool and linalyl acetate, are added to the oil to make up 40/42% of the oil.
I found your article via pinterest, very informative, thank you!! I am motivated to get started but overwhelmed not knowing where start. I checked out a few of the websites from some of the brands promoted as the highest quality in the comments section of your article. it seems the prices will start at around 20 dollars per bottle. As someone just starting out, this will be quite the investment if I want to have a variety of oils to use. My question is do you know of any higher quality brands that offer a bundle or sampler package for people like me who are just starting out and will have to purchase maybe five to ten bottles at the same time?
The reason why is that the ISO standard was developed as a very narrow qualification test for the fragrance industry, keeping "undesirable" but naturally occurring compounds such as camphor low because they're not ideal in ingredients used specifically for formulating expensive perfumes, where purer scent notes are more useful than more complex ones. However, the original cultivars of lavender actually had considerably more camphor - and other complex components - than the two cultivars that ISO recommends for perfume industry use. For example, the presence of more naturally occurring camphor, 1,8-cineole, and/or boreal is expected in a blend of the four major cultivars, but not in the two cultivars preferred by perfumers and reflected in the ISO standard prepared for that industry. Perhaps these very compounds in higher amounts may be at least partially responsible for the historical uses and good reputation of lavender oil.
ESPECIALLY since I had bought a natural “cat spray” a year or so ago that (by the smell of it) is just full of mostly lavender essential oil. It’s marketed as “all-natural and organic” and I got it ’cause sometimes my big cat sneaks out of the house and then comes back smelling all funky. I’ve used it on him twice, but I’ve put it far, far away until I figure this out.
While wholesale companies will often claim they sell pure oils, most don't. Genuine essential oils are very costly to produce, and many companies in the industry cut corners to reduce their expenses. At Choice Essential Oils, we offer 100% pure, Non-GMO essential oils at unbeatable prices. Other companies may dilute their essential oils with cheap carrier oils in order to boost their profit margins.  However, for one to attain the true benefits that essential oils have to offer, it is important to buy only the highest premium quality.
Refreshing and radiant, we carry several varieties of Lemon Essential Oil. Two of our most popular sellers are the regular Lemon and the Lemon 5 Fold, for their long-lasting, pleasant fragrance. The aroma is intensely citrusy and fresh, with wonderful zesty top notes. The Lemon 5 Fold is highly concentrated which makes it especially desirable for cosmetics, as well as soap and candle manufacturing.
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