The method employed for biofilm studies was carried out according to described in the antimicrobial assays (MIC) with modifications. The inocula from cultures were prepared at 107 cells/mL for bacteria and 105 cells/mL for C. albicans in BHI or SDB media, respectively, enriched with 2% sucrose. The cultures were incubated at 36°C for 72 h under appropriate atmosphere in order to promote microbial adherence to the bottom of the wells. Subsequently, MIC values were confirmed and to determine MBC/MFC, each adhered biofilm was transferred by swab technique to the surface of blood agar or SDA agar in petri dishes and incubated at 30°C for until five days according to oxygen microorganisms requirements [19, 20]. The MIC/MBC/MFC values were used to determine the MBC:MIC or MFC:MIC ratio, as previously proposed by Hafidh et al. [21] to establish the nature of antimicrobial effect, regard to inhibition or killing of the tested microorganisms.

The Lime Essential Oil has a fresh, sharp citrusy scent that revitalizes the atmosphere, and is popular in facial cleansers, toners and splashes wherein it acts as an astringent and can be used on oily skin. Key Lime is less sweet and is frequently used in many products, whereas the Tahiti/Persian Lime variety has a uniquely spicy fragrance and is commonly used in aromatherapy.


When washing clothes I use regular soap (haven’t looked into home made yet), and then put about 2 tablespoons of Epsom salt scented with a few drops of essential oils into the bottom of the washer before adding clothes. Then instead of using fabric softner I fill the dispenser with regular white vinegar. It keeps the washer from getting that funky smell and my clothes come out way softer. At first I was worried you would be able to smell the vinegar, but I have been doing this for 6 months now and you really can’t smell it! The Epsom salt doesn’t really have to have essential oil in it, the scent seems to rinse out in the wash but I like the little burst of scent you get when you dump it in, and use fairly cheap oils like citrus for it. If you want your clothes to actually smell of the oils you can get some wool dryer balls and add an oil of your choice before drying.

So when the "Tastefully Simple" rep meets the "Young Living" rep, they assume their training is much the same. They both have a product they are pumped up to believe in, are trained by their supervisors in marketing and sales methods, and are sent out to sell. But while the sales representatives of some MLM companies are just trying to find sales, what the Young Living rep is doing is two-fold both dangerous and manipulative to the customer. Here's why:
I agree heather- I LOVE DoTERRA oils!!!  I use them every day and we have never been healthier!  We have never had a bad reaction to them on our skin, even our little kids, because they are PURE.  I used YL all growing up and always had reactions to them, but the DoTERRA are amazing.  I also love that you can take most of them internally!  I used Oregano to kill strep throat I got last spring!  Can’t say enough good about them.  I especially love how the company is so in to education and helping you keep yourself and your family healthy. 
Ok I don’t usually make comments on articles but I just had to on this one. To the author: I’m sorry but this blog is poorly researched and full of errors. If you are going to put out information that people take as truth or at the very least as suggestions because they like you, you need to know what you are talking about. I highly suggest you take this blog down, re research essential oils and rewrite one that is accurate.
The certification of the management system after DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 proves, that we work with sustainability on quality and efficiency. The ISO 9001:2000 norm contains an obligation for the continuos improvement and a process-oriented approach. The most important objective is the satisfaction of the clients by consequent product management and integrated service.
Ellen – Im sorry but you are mistaken. Essential oils ARE able to be ingested in their purest, natural form. The FDA even acknowledges this and has its OWN list of Essential Oils Generally Recognized as Safe for human consumption. If needed I can gladly link you. The FDA has in fact gone after them, not for “practicing medicine”, but for some of the uneducated reps who made claims that EO’s cured Ebola. At the same time, Dr Bronners people among OTHER companies received the same letters. They also did not file anything, they have sent them letters with “their demands” and now these companies need to meet them. Do not make a mountain out of a mole hill. I am with Young Living oils- because I care where my product comes from.
To address your first paragraph: "Only with the coming of the golden age of Arab culture was a technique developed for the distillation of essential oils. The Arabs were the first to distill ethyl alcohol from fermented sugar, thus providing a new solvent for the extraction of essential oils in place of the fatty oils that had probably been used for several millennia." (from http://www.britannica.com/topic/essential-oil). The Golden Age of Arab culture started circa 750 making thousands of years, along with popular bible claims, of essential oil use impossible. And you don't state outright that you and your family are ingesting the oils, so I'm not sure what you're swinging at me for yet.
This post is the second in a weekly, multi-part series on Using Essential Oils. Last week we discussed Basic Essential Oils for Daily Living – how to get started using essential oils in your daily life. Here we will explore considerations to help you choose high quality essential oils. What should you look for? How can you guarantee an essential oil is pure? What does that even mean? What about cost? We invite you to learn how to choose an essential oil here and then join us weekly for additional articles on topics ranging from essential oil safety, using essential oils in herbalism, and carrier oils.
Essential oils are wholly natural and cannot be patented; which means that you’ll never see an essential oil in a pharmaceutical drug. As such, you can expect that the vast majority of mainstream healthcare practitioners will never recommend essential oils as therapeutic alternatives to drugs. More importantly, because essential oils cannot be patented, drug companies will not waste money studying them. This limits our scientific knowledge of essential oils GREATLY, and the majority of what we know about them are things that have been passed down through thousands of years of personal use and experimentation.
There’s a new kid on the EO block as of Oct 2014. Its called Ameo. Have you heard of it? They developed a patented technology that certifies the quality of every batch of oil as 100% cell permeable and all verified clinical grade. I highly recommend doing some research on it and if you are interested in sampling some of their oils, please get back with me and I will share some amazing stories and pictures of what these EOs can do…ingested, applied topically or diffused.
It's not an instant favorite (unlike Artemisia pallens and Inula graveolens), although I typically grow to like EO's once my body has had a chance to think them over and assimilate the new information. I gave it 5 stars for three reasons: It is unbelievably intense and lasting, which is how it is described around the web. It smells nothing like valerian, which I've heard people complaining gets substituted for the more-expensive vetiver. I've smelled a lot of valerian, and I just don't detect any of that here, so I'd say this hasn't been cut with anything. And despite washing with (unscented) soap and rinsing with isopropyl alcohol, the fragrance has not changed, it has only gotten a little weaker--I can't stand scents that change when they are watered down.
Used the right way, they can help you feel better with few side effects. For example, you may feel less nauseated from chemotherapy cancer treatment if you breathe in ginger vapors. You may be able to fight certain bacterial or fungal infections, including the dangerous MRSA bacteria, with tea tree oil. In one study, tea tree oil was as effective as a prescription antifungal cream in easing symptoms of a fungal foot infection.
“Aromatherapy grade” and “fragrance grade” means it not 100 percent pure essential oil, but has had other oils added, such as carrier oils and/or synthetic components of the natural oil. “To be considered a therapeutic oil, it must be completely free of any and all chemicals as well as slowly and carefully extracted via methods that keep the original compounds in its natural state,” says Dr. Axe. These healing scents will help you feel better.
“No vaccine manufacturer shall be liable…for damages arising from a vaccine-related injury or death.” – President Ronald Wilson Reagan, as he signed The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986, absolving drug companies from all medico-legal liability when children die, become chronically ill with vaccine-induced autoimmune disorders or are otherwise disabled from vaccine injuries. (That law has led directly to an expected reckless, liability-free development of scores of new, over-priced, potential block-buster vaccines, now numbering over 250. The question that must be asked of Big Medicine’s practitioners: How will the CDC, the AMA, the AAFP and the American Academy of Pediatrics fit any more potentially neurotoxic vaccines into the current well-baby over-vaccination schedule?)
Your on-line group will probably find quite a bit of information regarding the medical properties of plants by looking at sites/books about botony as well. I'm always amused when I tell people who ask how I got interested in this particular topic that it stems from reading a group of fictional books by Jean M. Auel called the Earth Children series (it starts with Clan of the Cave Bear) and other similar novels. I've always kinda wondered if I shouldn't have pursued botony as a career :) since it fascinated me so.
So you can see from this profile that the maximum amount of Camphor we will allow is 0.5%! A synthetic extract of Lavender called Lavandin contains 5-11% camphor and therefore may not be supportive of certain skin applications because of the camphor level. A truly pure lavender is excellent for the skin so if an oil matched the above phytochemical criteria, it can be called “Medicinal Grade”!
Plus, I don’t care how wonderful an EO is, I don’t think a certain combo is going to make someone “Thankful” or give them “Couraqe.” Those are personality traits, not a response to treatment. Seems a bit hokey to me. I just gave her the catalog back and didn’t say much. The MLM system is designed to make people antagonize their friends into feeling obligated to purchase stuff.
I happily only use Young Living Essential Oils! Not that there aren’t other ethical companies that produce a superior product that produces amazing therapeutic results, I am sure there are– for me, my alignment is with YL. I completely trust the oils the I put in and on my body, undiluted a lot of the time, by the way. 🙂 Also, the direct marketing/business plan is an awesome one, sound, powerful and effective. Do some research, check ’em out, see what works for you. Good luck!
All of the reputable essential oil companies in this comparison are ones that have made a name for themselves in at least half of the States. I didn’t chart brands that are only known vaguely in a few States. All of the essential oil brands on this map are popular, well-established, and trustworthy. Now the question only is: will they work for you?
Thank you for this article. I have been reading up on the ingestion of essential oils for a few months. I had a friend that ingested too much and was ill for a while due to it. Now I find myself nervous as there are folks I work with that are drinking essential oils in their water on a daily basis, have their children drink it and now have passed out flyers about essential oil shots. Very concerned and don't know how to tell them I'm worried.
NOW Foods runs an in-house full facility laboratory and utilizes third party testing only when necessary. They do put their oils through Gas Chromatography (GC) testing and Infrared Spectometry. A selection of their assortment are USDA certified organic essential oils, and their oils are natural and 100% pure. One jasmine blend is clearly labeled as synthetic, but it is the only one in their assortment and the reason is explained on NOW’s essential oils FAQ page here, basically justifying the synthetic scent due to the very high price of pure jasmine oil.

Do they sell essential oils of plants that are endangered? There are quite a few companies that are harvesting and using essential oils of plants that are endangered. You should be asking where your essential oil has come from; is it “endangered” and is the supplier trying to sell you an inferior/substituted product in its place, claiming that it is the same “quality” and standard.  If it is extracted from an endangered plant species, what is the current level of threat to that plant species? Finally, is there an alternative essential oil, with similar chemical components and properties that you could be using? You can keep track of current endangered aromatic species on cropwatch.org
A friend of ours recently became associated with doTerra and invited my wife and I to a “party” where doTerra sales reps talked about the benefits of EO’s and offered to sell various package deals or individual bottles of doTerra EO’s. They talked about the independent testing that doTerra has done by outside labs that they call CPTG (Certified Pure Therapeutic Grade). I came home and have been researching doTerra and Young Living on the internet (and believe me, I am skeptical of what I read on the internet), but I am very skeptical when companies make unsubstantiated claims about their products. I read doTerra’s testing protocol, but they say nothing about using an independent laboratory to perform the tests. Apparently there are no industry standards that apply to EO. doTerra is a MLM (multilevel marketing) company, kind of what I think of as a pyramid scheme, so their products are more expensive because there are many “middle men”. I don’t have a dog in the fight, other than my dollars, so I have spent several hours trying to educated myself about equally good products for less money. I settled on a company called Organic Infusions, and ordered a few of their oils, and when they arrive, I will compare with our friend’s doTerra oils and see if we can tell any difference. As for Young Living, Gary Young seems to be of very questionable character when you read about various schemes and scams he has allegedly been involved in. You can read about him for yourself by googling Gary Young quackery. I am not recommending the company that I ordered from, as I have not tried their products yet. There is a lot of information out there, Let the buyer beware!
I strongly encourage you to get a copy of Higley’s book “Reference Guide to Essential Oils” as it will help you learn about what oils you can and cannot use with children, which oils have been noted to help with which conditions and which oils are considered Generally Regarded as Safe for ingestion. There are other books out there, lots of testimonials by users of EOs, and lots of suggestions on pinterest. Please do not let naysayers like Jena frighten you away from EOs and do your research, learn all that you can. Also bear in mind that each person responds to and smells the oils differently so take time to get to know your response to each oil and how much carrier you need to prevent skin irritation. This is a learning experience that can positively change your life if you let it!
Two drops of straight peppermint oil on the tongue would equal approximately 1/10 of 1mL. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports a medicinal oral dose of 90mg (just under 1mL) per day HAS been scientifically studied, but only when combined with caraway oil and administered with an enteric coating, a coating which holds the pill together to prevent stomach contact. Young Living's capsules are not noted to be enteric, and the NAHA safety information on the matter states that even with an enteric-coated capsule, burning, rashes, headaches and diarrhea have been reported.
There is some concern about pesticide residues in essential oils, particularly those used therapeutically. For this reason, many practitioners of aromatherapy buy organically produced oils. Not only are pesticides present in trace quantities, but also the oils themselves are used in tiny quantities and usually in high dilutions. Where there is a concern about pesticide residues in food essential oils, such as mint or orange oils, the proper criterion is not solely whether the material is organically produced, but whether it meets the government standards based on actual analysis of its pesticide content.[50]
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